Fletcher-Lartey, S.; Dronavalli, M.; Alexander, K.; Ghosh, S.; Boonwaat, L.; Thomas, J.; Robinson, A.; Patel, Z.; Forssman, B.; Pal, N. Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae in Australia and New Zealand: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 191


(1) Background: The widespread development of resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) clinical isolates has been reported by surveillance systems around the world. This meta-analysis estimated the changes in susceptibility patterns among antibiotics under surveillance in Australia and New Zealand.

(2) Methods: Articles published in English from 1980–2018, from Australia or New Zealand, that met the selection criteria were included. The meta-analysis was carried out using the R statistical software.

(3) Results: In Australia, there has been decreasing susceptibility of gonococcal isolates to selected antimicrobials over time. Azithromycin (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.64–0.82) and ceftriaxone (OR: 0.69; 95% CI 0.59–0.80) showed decreasing levels of susceptibility each year. Western Australia (OR: 0.76; 95% CI 0.60–0.96) and Victoria (OR: 0.74; 95% CI 0.60–0.90) also had decreasing levels of susceptibility to ceftriaxone over time compared with other states and territories.

(4) Conclusions: The results highlight the need for the development of new approaches for managing cases of gonorrhoea. Improved antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance and contact tracing are needed to identify and respond to changes in antibiotic resistance in a timely manner. Increasing awareness and public health follow-up of cases can help to interrupt the cycle of infection and limit transmission.

Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; sexually transmitted infections; surveillance; antibiotic resistance; antimicrobial testing; Australia; New Zealand